If you’re writing a paper that reports on original investigative work, the Results section will be where you’ll go over the specifics of your findings and conclusions. If you’ve conducted surveys, made field measurements, or collected any other type of data to test your hypothesis, the information you’ve gathered must be arranged and presented to the reader in a straightforward manner.
The Results section should be a succinct explanation of your study findings that includes only the data and statistical analysis that you performed on your findings. Basically, it should be as dry as possible, with no reference to what the data means or how it was gathered. Those issues should be addressed in the Discussion and Methodology sections, respectively. Don’t know how to proceed? Allow our expert writers to help with your dissertation.
Where Should We Begin?
First and foremost, in order to produce an effective results section, you must first organize your material. Please keep in mind that every piece of information in your results should contribute to answering the research question in some way, which means you must determine which pieces of information are essential to your discussion and which ones can be excluded. Furthermore, you must choose which pieces of information are the most important so that they can be given precedence in the Results section. The obvious benefit of taking the effort to organize your data is that you will have a simpler time presenting that data on the page later on.
What Should Be Included.
You should only incorporate raw data in dissertations when absolutely necessary; otherwise, the reader will be overwhelmed by a big list of meaningless figures. The author bears the obligation of combing through the data and selecting the most important values and statistics that are required to answer the research question. Always remember that this includes both evidence that supports your theory and evidence that contradicts your hypothesis.
Make a list of the main arguments you intend to make during your conversation, as well as the supporting data you will need to support those statements, to make sure you don’t forget anything. If you have data that does not directly address your research question or that you do not require in order to make your point, don’t be afraid to leave it out. If you discover that you must incorporate raw data in your work, it is typically preferable to list it in an appendix rather than in the main body of the paper.
How to Make a Data Organizer.
The key to writing an effective results section is to make it simple to read. You want to be able to express a great deal of information in a limited amount of space, and you want to condense your results into a few important quotations or images. A typical Results section typically has text, tables, and figures. It is usually a good idea to prepare the graphics first so that you can then organize your results section around them.
Your viewers will benefit from clear subheadings that organize your data around core topics or ideas, which will allow them to move through the material more quickly. Example: If your study includes surveys, you may include subheadings that target distinct sample groups or questions that are grouped together by topic in your survey questions. If your hypothesis is divided into numerous pieces, you can organize your results into sections that address each part of the hypothesis individually. Subheadings are frequently arranged around essential tables or figures in a document.
No matter what your subheadings are, you’ll want to order your Results section so that the most significant findings are listed first and the least significant findings are saved for the conclusion of the section. While we’d like to believe that the individuals who read our work will read the full document, the reality is that they will often simply read the most important sections. By presenting your most significant findings first, you make a lasting impression on the reader and increase the likelihood that they will recall your most essential findings.
Starting with a description of the sample, including its size and an explanation for missing or excluded data, each part should be broken down into subsections. Following that, offer any relevant descriptive statistics (e.g., mean, median, frequency, range, and so on), and then provide any further statistical analysis you conducted (i.e., t test, data transformations, ANOVA, etc.). For a qualitative study, you can also incorporate information such as quotes that will be relevant to your discussion in your paper.
Tables and figures are included.
A well-designed table or figure will transmit more information in a shorter amount of space than can be accomplished with words, which implies that well-designed graphics are essential to a clean, brief Results section, as will be discussed later.
Tables are lists of numerical values given in rows and columns that are intended to assist the reader in interpreting and categorizing related pieces of data. Tables are used to help the reader understand and classify linked pieces of data. You should only use a table if you have a lot of information that can’t be fit into the text easily. There’s an old guideline that says you shouldn’t include tables with fewer than nine cells; for example, if you have enough information to fit in a table that’s smaller than 3 × 3, you should just include it in the text. Examine the following example, which shows typical kids’ test scores broken down by week for three different therapies.
The term “figure” refers to any type of illustration you want to include in your results, such as graphs, charts, images, maps, or any other type of illustration. You should give a brief description of the figure immediately below it. For example, if you include a photograph, you should describe what is depicted in the snapshot and where the photograph came from. A graph is by far the most popular type of figure in the Results section, and it is used to demonstrate correlations between different types of data.
It is entirely up to you whether or not to exhibit your data in a table or a figure. When attempting to demonstrate a link between sets of values, it is best not to utilize tables as a general rule of thumb. To illustrate how each treatment differed from week to week, in the previous example, you would use the table to highlight the cumulative effects of each therapy, but you would use the figure to show how each treatment varied over time. Also, in order to keep your Results section as concise as possible, avoid including the same information more than once. If the information has already been given in a graph, it should not be repeated in a table, and vice versa for the opposite.
Take note of the way the graphics have been formatted as well. Tables and figures are formatted differently according to each style guide, but in general, tables and figures are numbered sequentially, with the number and title listed above the graphic and any explanatory notes listed underneath the image. Figures are also numbered sequentially and separately from tables, with the figures’ numbers, names, and descriptions displayed below the graphic. Tables are numbered sequentially and separately from figures.
How to Write.
This section’s text should be concise and to the point, with no unnecessary frills or embellishments. It should be written in the past tense, using as much active voice as possible, and should be as concise as feasible (although due to the nature of this section, the use of some passive voice is usually acceptable). It’s also reasonable to assume that your readers have a rudimentary comprehension of statistics, so you won’t have to provide explanations for any statistical tests or words that appear in your results. It is necessary to add information in the Methodology section if you are employing a statistical model or procedure that is exceptional or novel in nature.
Students frequently feel the need to include introductory or explanatory language in their results, while in reality, a straightforward recital of data is all that is required. To give an example, the following language is overly wordy and presents a subjective analysis of the information:
It can be observed from the table that the second treatment group proved to be the more effective model for student performance. Students in the first group had an average score of 62 on the test, while those in the second group received an average score of 87, demonstrating that more preparation had a beneficial impact on test performance.
It is possible to rewrite the text in order to make it shorter and to eliminate the analysis offered by the author:
Students in the second treatment group performed significantly better on tests than students in the control group (Table 1). Students in the control group received an average score of 62 on the test, whereas students in the second therapy received an average score of 87, representing a 12.5 percent improvement.
Remember to keep it to a minimum. The information contained in tables and figures is not required to be repeated in the text if the Results section is primarily concerned with these visual representations of data. Instead, you want to highlight the most important data from tables and figures in the text by pulling it into the text. In addition, you should never include tables and figures without referencing them in the body of the article. While all of the figures require context, and while the Results section should not include any interpretation of the data, you should at the very least explain what each figure represents and why it was included in the section.
In most cases, there is no need for a conclusion in the Results section. Instead, you can jump right into the Discussion section of your chapter.
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